sexta-feira, agosto 26, 2016

Religião de Paz II

Cruzadas Cristãs

1094Byzantine emperor Alexius Comnenus I asks western Christendom for help against Seljuk (Muslim Turks) invasions of his territory.
1095Pope Urban II preaches first Crusade; they capture Jerusalem in 1099.

Cruzadas Islamicas 

630Muhammad conquers Mecca from his base in Medina.
632Muhammad dies in Medina. Islam controls the Hijaz.
636Muslims conquest of Syria, and the surrounding lands, all Christian – including Palestine and Iraq.
637Muslim Crusaders conquer Iraq (some date it in 635 or 636).
638Muslim Crusaders conquer and annex Jerusalem, taking it from the Byzantines.
638 – 650Muslim Crusaders conquer Iran, except along Caspian Sea.
639 – 642Muslim Crusaders conquer Egypt.
641Muslim Crusaders control Syria and Palestine.
643 – 707Muslim Crusaders conquer North Africa.
644 – 650Muslim Crusaders conquer Cyprus, Tripoli in North Africa, and establish Islamic rule in Iran, Afghanistan, and Sind.
673 – 678Arabs besiege Constantinople, capital of Byzantine Empire.
691Dome of the Rock is completed in Jerusalem, only six decades after Muhammad’s death.
710 – 713Muslim Crusaders conquer the lower Indus Valley.
711 – 713Muslim Crusaders conquer Spain and impose the kingdom of Andalus. The Muslim conquest moves into Europe.
718Conquest of Spain complete.
732Muslim invasion of France is stopped at the Battle of Poitiers / Battle of Tours. The Franks, under their leader Charles Martel (the grandfather of Charlemagne), defeat the Muslims and turn them back out of France.
762Foundation of Baghdad.
785Foundation of the Great Mosque of Cordova.
789Rise of Idrisid amirs (Muslim Crusaders) in Morocco; Christoforos, a Muslim who converted to Christianity, is executed.
800Autonomous Aghlabid dynasty (Muslim Crusaders) in Tunisia
807Caliph Harun al—Rashid orders the destruction of non-Muslim prayer houses & of the church of Mary Magdalene in Jerusalem.
809Aghlabids (Muslim Crusaders) conquer Sardinia, Italy.
813Christians in Palestine are attacked; many flee the country.
831Muslim Crusaders capture Palermo, Italy; raids in Southern Italy.
837 – 901Aghlabids (Muslim Crusaders) conquer Sicily, raid Corsica, Italy, France.
869 – 883Revolt of black slaves in Iraq.
909Rise of the Fatimid Caliphate in Tunisia; these Muslim Crusaders occupy Sicily, Sardinia.
928 – 969Byzantine military revival, they retake old territories, such as Cyprus (964) and Tarsus (969).
937The Church of the Resurrection (aka Church of Holy Sepulcher) is burned down by Muslims; more churches in Jerusalem are attacked.
960Conversion of Qarakhanid Turks to Islam.
969Fatimids (Muslim Crusaders) conquer Egypt and found Cairo.
973Israel and southern Syria are again conquered by the Fatimids.
1003First persecutions by al—Hakim; the Church of St. Mark in Fustat, Egypt, is destroyed.
1009Destruction of the Church of the Resurrection by al—Hakim (see 937).
1012Beginning of al—Hakim’s oppressive decrees against Jews and Christians.
1050Creation of Almoravid (Muslim Crusaders) movement in Mauretania; Almoravids (aka Murabitun) are coalition of western Saharan Berbers; followers of Islam, focusing on the Quran, the hadith, and Maliki law.
1071Battle of Manzikert, Seljuk Turks (Muslim Crusaders) defeat Byzantines and occupy much of Anatolia.
1071Turks (Muslim Crusaders) invade Palestine.
1073Conquest of Jerusalem by Turks (Muslim Crusaders).
1075Seljuks (Muslim Crusaders) capture Nicea (Iznik) and make it their capital in Anatolia.
1076Almoravids (Muslim Crusaders) (see 1050) conquer western Ghana.
1086Almoravids (Muslim Crusaders) (see 1050) send help to Andalus, Battle of Zallaca.
1090 – 1091Almoravids (Muslim Crusaders) occupy all of Andalus except Saragossa and Balearic Islands.
Mas o Islamismo é um religião de paz.